Execution of criminals has been a part of all societies- to punish crimes. Execution of a person by judicial process as a punishment for an offense is called capital punishment or death penalty.
Capital punishment is mainly for murder, espionage, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries rape, adultery can lead to death penalty.
Some of the torturous methods of capital punishment are listed below.
Disembowelment was used to remove some or all of the organs from the abdomen. Historically, it has been fatal form of capital punishment. The last organ to be removed was heart and lungs so that the condemned remain alive for as long as possible.
Breaking wheel was used to torture the people. This punishment was given in the middle ages and modern times. Breaking on the wheel was a form of torturous execution formerly in use in France, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Romania, Russia, the US, and other countries. The wheel was large wagon wheel and there used to be space in the wheel which in the wheel allowing the cudgel to break through. Sometimes they are lashed to the wheel and beaten by an iron or a club.
Another name for Scaphism is "boats", it was an ancient Persian method of execution designed to give someone torturous death. The victim was stripped naked and then fastened within the interior space of two narrow rowing boats joined together one on top of the other with the head, hands and feet protruding. The victim was forced to ingest milk so that the person can suffer from diarrhea and then honey was rubbed on his body so that it attracts the insects to feed them. The feeding would be repeated each day so that the person could have starvation as well as dehydration. Death by scaphism was painful, humiliating and protracted. Flaying was used by Assyrians and Ming Dynasty.
There was a time when Garrote was very common, but now it is no longer sanctioned by the law in any country. It's training is still carried out in French Foreign Legion. This device is used to strangle the person to death or to break his neck. This was used in Spain till it was outlawed. It consists of a prisoner who sits in a chair and then a metal bolt is pressed into the spinal chord, breaking the neck. The victim may feel severe pain and then die. This spiked version is known as the Catalan garrote. The last execution by garrote was José Luis Cerveto in October 1977. Andorra was the last country to outlaw this in 1990. According to Indian author and forensic expert Parikh it is still common in India.
The condemned is dipped in the bowl and oil, water or acid is used. this method was widely used in Russia and Europe 3000 years ago. This type of execution was slow and very painful. Sometimes the victim was immersed, the liquid then being heated, or he was plunged into the already boiling contents, usually head first. The executioner could then help speed their demise by means of a large hook with which made the person sank deeper.
To be hanged, drawn and quartered was the penalty for high treason in medieval England and remained on the statute book. It was applied only to male criminals, except on the Isle of Man. Women found guilty of treason were sentenced to be taken to a place of execution and burned at the stake. First the convict is dragged on a hurdle to the place of execution. After drawing he is hanged by his neck till death.
Impalement was very very brutal method of capital punishment which involves a person pierced with a long stake. The penetration could be through the sides, through the rectum, through the vagina, or through the mouth. The stake would be planted to the ground and the victim was suspended to die. The stake would be inserted so that instant death of the victim could be avoided. After preparation of the victim, perhaps including public torture and rape, the victim was stripped and an incision was made in the perineum between the genitals and rectum. A stout pole with a blunt end was inserted. A blunt end would push vital organs to the side, greatly slowing death. The pole would often come out of the body at the top of the sternum and be placed against the lower jaw so that the victim would not slide farther down the pole. Often, the victim was hoisted into the air after partial impalement. Gravity and the victim's own struggles would cause him to slide down the pole. This method is extremely painful and was used by Neo-Assyrian Empire, Greek empire, and Roman Empire.
Flaying is the removal of skin from the body. It was used either to torture the person for execution or death. Flaying was used by Assyrians and Ming Dynasty.
Brazen Bull is an execution device designed in ancient Greece. Perriols was a brass worker who invented this device. The Bull was made entirely with brass and hollow in shape where one side there used to be a door. The victims were made to sit inside the bull and a fire was set inside. After some time, the metal started heating and turned to yellow which made the victim roast and execute to death. The bull system was so complicated with lots of tubes and stops that the victims scream turned into a sound like the bull. And after the bull was burned the remains were used to make jewels.
The process involves tying the person with the wooden frame in the public. Then the flesh is cut into multiple slices.