"Not only land but we have been to the depths of heaving seas,
Upon our steed of zeal, we rode unto their darkest boundaries'' - Allama Iqbal
We, humans, have literally explored almost every corner of the earth. We have conquered the toughest of terrains and have been to the base of deepest of oceans, but we have never been to the earth's core.
What all lies below the earth's crust is wrapped up in mystery, and yet we know quite a lot about our planet's core. Isn't this strange?
The Earth, from the center moving towards the surface, is made up of an inner core, outer core, lower mantle, upper mantle, and the crust.
Earth's innermost section is called its inner core, and according to the consensus reached by scientists, it as hot as the sun's surface.
Beneath the planet's molten iron core lays another, an inner iron core that never melts even though it's hotter than the sun. A new research may have finally solved the puzzle of how this occurs.
In the pic: Dr. Anatoly Belonoshko, a researcher at the Department of Physics at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
Scientists at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden found that at the Earth's core the pressure is 3.5 million times higher than surface weight and temperatures are somewhere in the range of 6,000°C (10,800°F) higher.
At this outrageous temperature and weight, particles are set in motion.
This causes nuclear instability in the iron core, distorting the iron crystals into a fluid. On the edge of the inward core, bits of crystals' structure relentlessly melt and diffuse just to be reinserted because of high pressure like 'shuffling deck of cards'.
This energy distribution cycle keeps the crystal stable and the center strong.
The scientists used computer simulations to exhibit that in the extreme heat of the core, atoms are set in motion because of the high amplitude. Dr Belonoshko concluded that Diffusion usually devastates crystal structures transforming them into the fluid, however, for this situation, diffusion allows the protection of the core's strong structure.
Kudos to these Swedish Scientists. They might have just solved one of the biggest standing mysteries of all time.